BIRTH CONTROL/TYPES OF CONTRACEPTIVES

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This is Md Nasir welcome to my website
www.naclasses.com

·       What are contraceptive?
A  wide  range  of   Contraceptive  methods  are  presently  available which  could  be  broadly  grouped  into  the  following  categories, namely 

TYPES OF CONTRACEPTIVES

  •  Natural/Traditional
  •   Barrier, 
  • IUDs (Intra Uterine Devices)
  •  Oral  contraceptives,
  •   Injectables

  • Implants  
  •  Surgical  methods. 

Natural  /Traditional Methods  of birth control         

#1    Natural  /Traditional Methods  work on  the  principle  of  avoiding  chances  of ovum  and  sperms  meeting Periodic  abstinence  is  one  such  method  in  which  the  couples avoid  or  abstain  from  coitus  from  day  10  to  17  of  the  menstrual cycle  when  ovulation  could  be  expected.

#1 As  chances  of  fertilisation  are  very  high  during  this  period,  it  is called  the  fertile  .period.

 #2  By  abstaining  from  coitus  during  this  period,  conception could  be  prevented.
 
#3   Withdrawal  or  coitus  interruptus  is   another  method birth control in  which  the male  partner  withdraws  his  penis  from  the  vagina  just  before ejaculation  so  as  to  avoid  insemination.
#4   Lactational  amenorrhea  (absence  of  menstruation) this  method of birth control  is based  on  the  fact  that  ovulation  and  therefore  the  cycle  do  not occur  during  the  period  of  as  the  mother  breast-feeds  the  child fully,  chances  of  reported  to  be  effective  only  upto  a  maximum period  of  six  months  following  parturition.

 As  no  medicines  or  devices  are  used  an  these  method,  side effects  are  almost  nil.
 Chances  of  failure,  through  of  this  method  are  also  high.


Barrier Methods of Birth control 

    • condom(male&female)
    • Diaphragms
    • Cervical caps
  • Vaults
 
In  barrier  methods,  ovum  and  sperm  are  prevented  from  physically  meeting  with  the  help  of  barriers.

Condom are barriers made of thin rubber( Fig B.2_)
female partner that are used to cover the vagina and cervix in the female( fig A.1) 

 

Such methods are available for both males and females. Condoms (condom for male       (fig  B.2)&condom for female Fig A.1 ) are barriers, which is made of thin rubber/sex  sheath that are used to  cover  the  penis in the male or vagina and cervix in female.

 Just before coitus use these barriers so that the ejaculated semen would not enter into the female reproductive tract. This can prevent conception. 


Popular Brand of condom

  • Nirodh
  • Trojan Condoms
  • Lifestyle SKYN Condom
  • Astroglide Lubes
  • kimono Microthin condoms
  • Beyond Seven Condoms
  • Trustex Condoms
  • Cupid,s female Condoms   
 These are  popular brand of condom for the male. Interesting point, use of condoms has increased in recent years due to its additional benefit of  protecting the user from contracting STDs and AIDS.
 
  •  Both the male and the female condoms are disposable. Can  be self- inserted and thereby gives privacy to the user 
  • .Diaphragms, Cervical caps and Vaults are also barriers.It is  made of rubber that are inserted into the female reproductive  tract that cover the cervix during coitus

These barriers prevent conception by blocking the entry of sperms through the cervix. They are reusable spermicidal. Jellies and forms are usually used alongwith  these barriers to increasc their contraceptive efficiency.
 


IUDs (Intra Uterine Devices)

 
                Another  effective   and  famous method is, the use of Intra  Uterine  Devices (IUDs).   These  devices  are inserted by doters or expert nurses in the uterus through vagina. These Intra Uterine Devices are presently available in the markets.


Types of IUDs

 
  • Non-medicated IUDs (eg Lippes Loop)
  • Cooper realesing IUDs (eg Cu7,Multiload 375)
  • Hormone realesing  IUDs (eg Progestasert LNG-20)
 IUDs increase phagocytosis of sperms within the uterus of the female. 

 
 The Cu ions released and suppress sperm motility and the fertilising  capacity of sperms decrease.


The hormone realising IUDs, make the uterus unsuitable for implantation and the cervix hostile to the sperms.


 IUDs are ideal contraceptives for the females who want to delay in  pregnancy and or long duration children. It is one of the most widely accepted methods of contraception  in India and other country.

   Oral Contraceptives for birth control 

  •  Progestogens oral contraceptives    
  •  
  • Estrogen oral contraceptives
  •  
  • Progestogens&Estrogens combinations oral contraceptives


 Administration of small doses of either progestogens or progestogen estrogen combinations is another contraceptive method used commonly by  the females. They are used in the form of tablets and hence are popularly called the pills.


Saheli for the females contains a non- steroidal  preparation . It is a once a
week pill with lesser side effects and high contraceptive value.
 (Fig A.2)      


These pills have to be taken daily for a period of 21 days starting preferably within the first five days of menstrual cycle. After a gap of 7 days (during which menstruation ours) it has to be repeated in the same pattern till the female desires to prevent conception



They inhibit ovulation and implantation as well as alert the quality of cervical mucus to prevent /retard entry of sperms. Pills are very effective with very few side effects and are well accepted by the females.

Types of pills(popular use to birth control 

  • Saheli 
  • Alesse
  • Apri
  • Aranelle
  • Aviane
  • Azurette
  • Beyaz

 Saheli(Fig A.2) the new oral contraceptive for the females contains a non-steroidal preparation. It takes once a week pill with very few side effects and high contraceptive value.

Implants or Injections



 Progestogens  alone or in combination with estrogen can also be used by females as injections or implants under the skin (Figure A.3).


 Their mode of action is almost similar to that of pills and their effective periods are much longer.

Implants under the skin is similar to that pills (Fig A.3)

 Administration of progestogens or progestogen-estrogen  combinations or IUDs within 72 hours of fetal have been found to be highly effective as emergency contraceptives, as they could be used to avoid possible pregnancy cause to rape or unprotected intercourse.



Female tubectomy is surgical methods (Fig A.4)
Vasectomy is a surgical method (Fig A.5)

                  











Surgical Methods

 

  • Vasectomy
  • Tubectomy

Surgical Methods also called sterilisation, are generally advised for the male / female partner as a terminal method to prevent any more pregnancies.female widely accept this method to birth control permanently


 Vasectomy


 Surgical intervention blocks gamete transport and thereby prevent conception. Sterilisation procedure in the male is called vasectomy


 In vasectomy. a small  part of the vas deferens is removed or tied up through a small incision on the scrotum (Fig A.5)


Tubectomy


 Surgical intervention blocks gamete transport and thereby prevent conception. Sterilisation procedure in the female is called Tubectomy.

 

In tubectomy, a small  part of the fallopian tube  is removed (Fig A.4) or tied up through a small incision in the abdomen or through vagina. These techniques are highly effective but their reversing is very poor.  

  Advantages&Side effects

 
  • It needs to be emphasised that the selection  of a suitable contraceptive method and its use should always be undertaken in consultatino with qualified  medical professionals.

 

  • You must also remember that contraceptives are not regular requirements for the maintenance of reproductive health.

 

  •  In fact, they are practiced against a natural reproductive event, i.e., effect in conception/pregnancy.

 

  •  One is forced to use these methods either to prevent pregnancy or to delay pregnancy or long duration in pregnancy due to personal reasons. No doubt, the widespread use of these methods have a significant role in checking uncontrolled growth of population in the world. 


Side effects

  • Nausea
  • Abdominal pain 
  •  Breakthrough bleeding
  • Irregular menstrual bleeding
  • Brest cancer

However their possible ill-effects like nausea, abdominal pain, breakthrough bleeding, irregular menstrual bleeding or even breast cancer, through not very significant should not be totally ignored.

                                                                                        

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