TYPES OF CONTRACEPTIVES
- IUDs (Intra Uterine Devices)
- Oral contraceptives,
- Surgical methods.
Natural /Traditional Methods of birth control
#1 Natural /Traditional Methods work on the principle of avoiding chances of ovum and sperms meeting Periodic abstinence is one such method in which the couples avoid or abstain from coitus from day 10 to 17 of the menstrual cycle when ovulation could be expected.
#2 By abstaining from coitus during this period, conception could be prevented.
Barrier Methods of Birth control
- Cervical caps
|Condom are barriers made of thin rubber( Fig B.2_)|
|female partner that are used to cover the vagina and cervix in the female( fig A.1)
Such methods are available for both males and females. Condoms (condom for male (fig B.2)&condom for female Fig A.1 ) are barriers, which is made of thin rubber/sex sheath that are used to cover the penis in the male or vagina and cervix in female.
Popular Brand of condom
- Trojan Condoms
- Lifestyle SKYN Condom
- Astroglide Lubes
- kimono Microthin condoms
- Beyond Seven Condoms
- Trustex Condoms
- Cupid,s female Condoms
- Both the male and the female condoms are disposable. Can be self- inserted and thereby gives privacy to the user
- .Diaphragms, Cervical caps and Vaults are also barriers.It is made of rubber that are inserted into the female reproductive tract that cover the cervix during coitus
These barriers prevent conception by blocking the entry of sperms through the cervix. They are reusable spermicidal. Jellies and forms are usually used alongwith these barriers to increasc their contraceptive efficiency.
IUDs (Intra Uterine Devices)
Types of IUDs
- Non-medicated IUDs (eg Lippes Loop)
- Cooper realesing IUDs (eg Cu7,Multiload 375)
- Hormone realesing IUDs (eg Progestasert LNG-20)
Oral Contraceptives for birth control
- Progestogens oral contraceptives
- Estrogen oral contraceptives
- Progestogens&Estrogens combinations oral contraceptives
Administration of small doses of either progestogens or progestogen estrogen combinations is another contraceptive method used commonly by the females. They are used in the form of tablets and hence are popularly called the pills.
|Saheli for the females contains a non- steroidal preparation . It is a once a
week pill with lesser side effects and high contraceptive value. (Fig A.2)
These pills have to be taken daily for a period of 21 days starting preferably within the first five days of menstrual cycle. After a gap of 7 days (during which menstruation ours) it has to be repeated in the same pattern till the female desires to prevent conception
They inhibit ovulation and implantation as well as alert the quality of cervical mucus to prevent /retard entry of sperms. Pills are very effective with very few side effects and are well accepted by the females.
Types of pills(popular use to birth control
Saheli(Fig A.2) the new oral contraceptive for the females contains a non-steroidal preparation. It takes once a week pill with very few side effects and high contraceptive value.
Implants or Injections
Progestogens alone or in combination with estrogen can also be used by females as injections or implants under the skin (Figure A.3).
Their mode of action is almost similar to that of pills and their effective periods are much longer.
|Implants under the skin is similar to that pills (Fig A.3)|
Administration of progestogens or progestogen-estrogen combinations or IUDs within 72 hours of fetal have been found to be highly effective as emergency contraceptives, as they could be used to avoid possible pregnancy cause to rape or unprotected intercourse.
|Female tubectomy is surgical methods (Fig A.4)|
|Vasectomy is a surgical method (Fig A.5)|
Surgical Methods also called sterilisation, are generally advised for the male / female partner as a terminal method to prevent any more pregnancies.female widely accept this method to birth control permanently
Surgical intervention blocks gamete transport and thereby prevent conception. Sterilisation procedure in the male is called vasectomy
In vasectomy. a small part of the vas deferens is removed or tied up through a small incision on the scrotum (Fig A.5)
Surgical intervention blocks gamete transport and thereby prevent conception. Sterilisation procedure in the female is called Tubectomy.
In tubectomy, a small part of the fallopian tube is removed (Fig A.4) or tied up through a small incision in the abdomen or through vagina. These techniques are highly effective but their reversing is very poor.
- It needs to be emphasised that the selection of a suitable contraceptive method and its use should always be undertaken in consultatino with qualified medical professionals.
- You must also remember that contraceptives are not regular requirements for the maintenance of reproductive health.
- In fact, they are practiced against a natural reproductive event, i.e., effect in conception/pregnancy.
- One is forced to use these methods either to prevent pregnancy or to delay pregnancy or long duration in pregnancy due to personal reasons. No doubt, the widespread use of these methods have a significant role in checking uncontrolled growth of population in the world.
- Abdominal pain
- Breakthrough bleeding
- Irregular menstrual bleeding
- Brest cancer
However their possible ill-effects like nausea, abdominal pain, breakthrough bleeding, irregular menstrual bleeding or even breast cancer, through not very significant should not be totally ignored.